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Albuterol

Overview

Salbutamol/Albuterol is a beta receptor agonist. Salbutamol is a short acting agent and is used only in the managment of acute episode of asthma. It relaxes the smooth muscle in the lungs and dilates or expands the bronchi (air ways) in lungs and makes breathing easy.

Category:

  • 25 Drugs acting on the respiratory tract
  • 25.1 Anti-asthmatic drugs
  • 25.1.2 Inhalants

Primary Characterstics

Salbutamol Sulphate is the derivative of Albuterol. It is of Synthetic origin and belongs to Phenylbutylalcohol. It belongs to Beta-2 adrenergic agonist pharmacological group on the basis of mechanism of action and also classified in Bronchodilator pharmacological group.The Molecular Weight of Albuterol is 239.30.
Its pKa is 9.3, 10.3.

Pharmacokinetics

Oral absorption of Albuterol is found to be 85% . Volume of distribution is found to be 3.4 l/kg and plasma protien binding is 10%. Presystemic metabolism is noted to be 5.5% ±4.5 and metabolism is reported Hepatic. Renal Excretion accounts for 75% and plasma half life is 2.7-5 hr.

Indications

Albuterol is primarily indicated in conditions like Asthma, Bronchitis, Bronchospasm, Emphysema, Exercise-induced bronchospasm, Reversible airways obstruction, and can also be given in adjunctive therapy as an alternative drug of choice in Premature labour.

Contraindications

Drug Interactions

Albuterol is known to interact with other drugs, the details of drug interactions is as follows:

DrugDetailsSeverityOnsetManagement
Amiloride (HCl)Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
Chlorothiazidehypokalemia may be enhanced by co adminstration of diruretcs such as chlorothiazide wtih salbutamol Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
Digoxincoadministration of salbutamol with cardiac glycosides produce fall in plasma concentrations and decrease serum concentration of digoxin
EphedrineShould not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
FurazolidoneShould not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
HydrochlorothiazideShould not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
MetipranololInfrequent reports of METIPRANOLOL [EYE] reducing the BRONCHODILATOR effect of SALBUTAMOL. Major
Pancuronium (Br)salbutamol enhace neuromuscular blockade produced by neuromuscular blockers e.g pancuronium and vecuronium
PhenelzineShould not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
Propranolol (HCl)co administration of salbutamol with beta blockers such as propanolol, salmeterol , may have a additive effects to contro acute bronchospasm, reduce the sensitivity to salbutamolShould not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
Pseudoephedrine (HCl)Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
Selegiline (HCl)Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
Spironolactonehypokalemia may be enhanced by co adminstration of diruretcs such as spironolactone Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
TheophyllineAn enhanced hypokalemic effect may occur during co administration of salbutamol and theophylline
Timolol (Maleate)Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
Tranylcypromine (Sulphate)Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription.

These interactions are sometimes beneficial and sometimes may pose threats to life. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

Interference in Pathology

No data regarding the pathological interferences produced by Albuterol is available.

Side Effects

The severe or irreversible adverse effects of Albuterol, which give rise to further complications include Tachycardia, Hypokalemia, Sinus bradycardia, Ventricular ectopics, Peripheral vasodilatation.

The signs and symptoms that are produced after the acute overdosage of Albuterol include Flushing, nervousness, Hypokalemia, Palpitations, CNS stimulation, Tremor, Agitation, Weakness.

The symptomatic adverse reactions produced by Albuterol are more or less tolerable and if they become severe, they can be treated symptomatically, these include Headache, Nausea, Vomiting, Anxiety, Palpitation, Tremor, Muscle cramps, Heart burn, Appetite stimulation.

Available Brands

Click on the appropriate strength of the dosage form to view its available brands.

Single Ingredient

Inj: 0.5 mg/ml,
Inhaler: 100 mcg/actu, 12.05 mcg/actu,
Syrup: 1 mg/5ml, 2 mg/5ml, 2.4 mg/5ml,
Soln: 5 mg/ml,
Tabs: 2 mg, 4 mg, 2.4 mg, 4.8 mg,
Tabs SR: 4 mg, 8 mg,
Caps: 200 mcg,

Multi ingredient

Inhaler: 50 mcg/actu, 100 mcg/actu,
Nebuliser: 1.6 mg/2ml,
Syrup: 1 mg/ml, 1 mg/5ml,

Dosage

Albuterol's dosage details are as follows:
Dose Single Dose Frequency Route Instructions

Adult Dosage

2.5 to 5 mg3.8 (3.75)6 hourlyInhalationTo be used with nebuliser or respirator
100 to 200 mcg150 (150)6 hourlyInhalationFrequency may be increased to 6 times if needed.
2 to 4 mg3 (3)8 hourlyPOFrequency may be increased to 4 times if needed.

Paedriatic Dosage ( 20 Kg. )

0.25 mg/kg0.25 (0.25)6 hourlyInhalationRecommended via Nebulization
0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg0.15 (0.15)8 hourlyOral-

Neonatal Dosage ( 3 Kg. )

0.156 mg/kg0.16 (0.156)6 hourlyInhalationVia nebulizer
0.125 mg/kg0.12 (0.125)8 hourlyOral

High Risk Groups

Drug should not be given to Paediatrics, Pregnant Mothers, Cardiac / Hypertensive Patients, Geriatrics, and Neonates.

If prescribing authority justifies the benefits of the drug against the possible damages he/she should reevaluate them and consult the reference material and previous studies.

Warning / Precautions

The management of asthma should normally follow a stepwise program, and patient response should be monitored clinically and by lung function test. In patients who are considered at risk, daily peak flow monitoring may be instituted. Salbutamol should be used with caution in patients with hyperthyroidism, myocardial insufficiency, arrhythmias, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. It should be used with caution during pregnancy.

Storage Conditions

Inhaler

Store at room temperature. Protect from Sunlight and Heat.

Syrup, Inj

Store at room temperature, Below 30°C or in refrigerator. Do not Freeze. Protect from Sunlight.

Tab

Store in a well closed container, at room temperature, Below 30°C or in refrigerator. Do not Freeze. Protect from Heat.

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