Salbutamol/Albuterol is a beta receptor agonist. Salbutamol is a short acting agent and is used only in the managment of acute episode of asthma. It relaxes the smooth muscle in the lungs and dilates or expands the bronchi (air ways) in lungs and makes breathing easy.
25 Drugs acting on the respiratory tract 25.1 Anti-asthmatic drugs 25.1.2 Inhalants
Salbutamol Sulphate is the derivative of Albuterol. It is of Synthetic origin and belongs to Phenylbutylalcohol. It belongs to Beta-2 adrenergic agonist pharmacological group on the basis of mechanism of action and also classified in Bronchodilator pharmacological group.The Molecular Weight of Albuterol is 239.30. Its pKa is 9.3, 10.3.
Oral absorption of Albuterol is found to be 85% . Volume of distribution is found to be 3.4 l/kg and plasma protien binding is 10%. Presystemic metabolism is noted to be 5.5% ±4.5 and metabolism is reported Hepatic. Renal Excretion accounts for 75% and plasma half life is 2.7-5 hr.
Albuterol is known to interact with other drugs, the details of drug interactions is as follows:
Drug Details Severity Onset Management Amiloride (HCl) Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Chlorothiazide hypokalemia may be enhanced by co adminstration of diruretcs such as chlorothiazide wtih salbutamol
Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Digoxin coadministration of salbutamol with cardiac glycosides produce fall in plasma concentrations and decrease serum concentration of digoxin Ephedrine Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Furazolidone Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Hydrochlorothiazide Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Metipranolol Infrequent reports of METIPRANOLOL [EYE] reducing the BRONCHODILATOR effect of SALBUTAMOL. Major Pancuronium (Br) salbutamol enhace neuromuscular blockade produced by neuromuscular blockers e.g pancuronium and vecuronium Phenelzine Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Propranolol (HCl) co administration of salbutamol with beta blockers such as propanolol, salmeterol , may have a additive effects to contro acute bronchospasm, reduce the sensitivity to salbutamol Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Pseudoephedrine (HCl) Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Selegiline (HCl) Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Spironolactone hypokalemia may be enhanced by co adminstration of diruretcs such as spironolactone
Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Theophylline An enhanced hypokalemic effect may occur during co administration of salbutamol and theophylline Timolol (Maleate) Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription. Tranylcypromine (Sulphate) Should not use concurrently without doctors prescription.
These interactions are sometimes beneficial and sometimes may pose threats to life. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.
Interference in Pathology
No data regarding the pathological interferences produced by Albuterol is available.
The severe or irreversible adverse effects of Albuterol, which give rise to further complications include Tachycardia, Hypokalemia, Sinus bradycardia, Ventricular ectopics, Peripheral vasodilatation.
The signs and symptoms that are produced after the acute overdosage of Albuterol include Flushing, nervousness, Hypokalemia, Palpitations, CNS stimulation, Tremor, Agitation, Weakness.
The symptomatic adverse reactions produced by Albuterol are more or less tolerable and if they become severe, they can be treated symptomatically, these include Headache, Nausea, Vomiting, Anxiety, Palpitation, Tremor, Muscle cramps, Heart burn, Appetite stimulation.
Click on the appropriate strength of the dosage form to view its available brands.
Single Ingredient Inj: 0.5 mg/ml, Inhaler: 100 mcg/actu, 12.05 mcg/actu, Syrup: 1 mg/5ml, 2 mg/5ml, 2.4 mg/5ml, Soln: 5 mg/ml, Tabs: 2 mg, 4 mg, 2.4 mg, 4.8 mg, Tabs SR: 4 mg, 8 mg, Caps: 200 mcg, Multi ingredient
Inhaler: 50 mcg/actu, 100 mcg/actu, Nebuliser: 1.6 mg/2ml, Syrup: 1 mg/ml, 1 mg/5ml,
Albuterol's dosage details are as follows:
2.5 to 5 mg 3.8 (3.75) 6 hourly Inhalation To be used with nebuliser or respirator 100 to 200 mcg 150 (150) 6 hourly Inhalation Frequency may be increased to 6 times if needed.
2 to 4 mg 3 (3) 8 hourly PO Frequency may be increased to 4 times if needed.
Paedriatic Dosage ( 20 Kg. )
0.25 mg/kg 0.25 (0.25) 6 hourly Inhalation Recommended via Nebulization
0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg 0.15 (0.15) 8 hourly Oral -
Neonatal Dosage ( 3 Kg. )
0.156 mg/kg 0.16 (0.156) 6 hourly Inhalation Via nebulizer
0.125 mg/kg 0.12 (0.125) 8 hourly Oral
High Risk Groups
Drug should not be given to Paediatrics, Pregnant Mothers, Cardiac / Hypertensive Patients, Geriatrics, and Neonates.
If prescribing authority justifies the benefits of the drug against the possible damages he/she should reevaluate them and consult the reference material and previous studies.
Warning / Precautions
The management of asthma should normally follow a stepwise program, and patient response should be monitored clinically and by lung function test. In patients who are considered at risk, daily peak flow monitoring may be instituted. Salbutamol should be used with caution in patients with hyperthyroidism, myocardial insufficiency, arrhythmias, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. It should be used with caution during pregnancy.
Store at room temperature. Protect from Sunlight and Heat.
Store at room temperature, Below 30°C or in refrigerator. Do not Freeze. Protect from Sunlight.
Store in a well closed container, at room temperature, Below 30°C or in refrigerator. Do not Freeze. Protect from Heat.
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